In the name of Allah,
Nifass is bleeding that results from pregnant women giving birth. It may occur before, during, or after birth. The utmost recognizable length of nifas according to Islam is forty days, but it may be less for some women. Bleeding after 40 days is Istihadah.
A pregnant woman sees blood a few days before she gives birth
If blood comes two to three days before birth with signs like discomfort or cramping, it is nifaas blood. If not, it is irregular bleeding, which does not require her to stop fasting or praying. This has been discussed here.
According to the four schools of law and Ibn Hazm al-Zahiri, there is no minimum postnatal bleeding length.
Sheikh Ibn Baaz ( May Allah have mercy on him) said that if a woman with postpartum blood becomes clean before forty days, she must do Ghusl, pray, and fast in Ramadan, and she can have sexual relations with her husband again. There is no set minimum time for postpartum bleeding[i].
As mentioned in The Mukhtaṣar of al-Akhḍarī, a Maliki book:
Nifās is like ḥayd in terms of what it prevents. The longest it can be is 60 days. If the blood stops before that, even on the day of the birth, she performs the ghusl and prays[ii].
Scholars disagree about how long nifaas are (the post-natal bleeding period). Some scholars say 40 days, some say 60 days, and some say no limit. Most agree that 40 days is the limit.
A woman can experience postnatal bleeding for a maximum of forty days. This is the Hanafi/Hanbali view. The Permanent Committee, Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr, and al-Shawkani all favor it. Al-Tirmidhi and Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr cite the Companions as agreeing with this, which is the opinion of most scholars. ( May Allah be pleased with them)
The timeframe is sixty days, according to Maaliki and Shaafi’i. Click here to know their evidence.
Shayekul Islam Ibn Taymeeyah stated: “Nifass has no limit on its shorter or longer periods. If a woman’s blood flow ends after forty, sixty, or seventy days, It’s Nifass. However, if the bleeding persists, Nifass is set at forty days because most women experience this time.[iii]
It is narrated by Umm Salama who said, “A Prophet’s (peace and blessings be upon him) wife used to remain in (a state of) nifaas for forty nights and the Prophet would not ask her to make up the prayers she missed during the period of nifaas”[iv].
Ibn Majah also reported that Anas, may Allaah be pleased with him, narrated that “The Prophet had specified a period of forty days for the nufasaa’ unless she achieves tuhr before that.’[v]
Thus, if a woman with post-childbirth bleeding sees blood after forty days, it is istihaadha (womb bleeding between periods). This doesn’t prevent her from praying or fasting as long as the conclusion of the forty days does not coincide with her monthly cycle. In this case, she would regard this blood to be menstruation blood. This view is the most convincing because it is supported by evidence.
May Allah’s peace and blessings be on the last and final prophet
[i] Fatwa Islamiyah (Islamic Verdicts) Vol 2 From the noble scholars Abdullah bib Baaz, Shaikh Uthaymeen, Ibn Jibreen ( May Allah have mercy on them) along with the permanent committee. Darussalam Publications Page 120
[ii] The Abridgement of al-Akhdari By the great scholar Abdul Rahman al-Akhdari Translated by Muhammad Rami Nsour al-Idrisi, page 24
[iii] NATURAL BLOOD OF WOMEN By Shaykh Muhammad bin Salih Al-Utheimeen, Translated & Researched by Saleh-As.Saleh S . Dr, Published & Distributed by Daar Al-Bukhari, page 35
[iv] Imam Ahmad, Abu Dawood, Ibn Majah, and Al-Daraami and is classified as hasan by Al-Albaani in Irwaa’ Al-Ghaleel # 201. Al-Albaani has supported this narration by another hadeeth reported by Abu Dawood
[v] .” Irwaa’ Al Ghaleel # 223-222/1.