In the name of Allah,
Description Of Miscarriage Bleeding
When a pregnancy ends before 20 weeks, it is called a miscarriage. It may be either spontaneous or voluntarily performed. Most losses occur in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. After 20 weeks, pregnancy losses are termed stillbirths. Contrary to medical or surgical abortions, miscarriages happen on their own.
Miscarriage can be caused by chromosome or DNA issues, anatomical issues, or human interference. When a woman miscarries, she bleeds for days or weeks. The extent depends on the woman’s health and the pregnancy’s length[i].
Four stages of pregnancy
Nutfah- first forty days
Alaqa- 41-80 days
When the soul is breathed-120+days
This is based on the hadith Narrated by`By Abdullah:
Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ), the truthful and truly-inspired, said, “Each one of you collected in the womb of his mother for forty days, and then turns into a clot for an equal period (of forty days) and turns into a piece of flesh for a similar period (of forty days) and then Allah sends an angel and orders him to write four things, i.e., his provision, his age, and whether he will be of the wretched or the blessed (in the Hereafter). Then the soul is breathed into him. And by Allah, a person among you (or a man) may do deeds of the people of the Fire till there is only a cubit or an arm-breadth distance between him and the Fire, but then that writing (which Allah has ordered the angel to write) precedes, and he does the deeds of the people of Paradise and enters it; and a man may do the deeds of the people of Paradise till there is only a cubit or two between him and Paradise, and then that writing precedes and he does the deeds of the people of the Fire and enters it.”[ii]
Human features can only emerge in the mudghah stage, according to Allah, may He be praised. (interpretation of the meaning):
“O mankind! If you are in doubt about the Resurrection, then verily! We have created you (i.e. Adam) from dust, then from a Nutfah (mixed drops of male and female sexual discharge i.e. offspring of Adam), then from a clot (a piece of thick coagulated blood) then from a little lump of flesh, some formed and some unformed (miscarriage), that We may make (it) clear to you (i.e. to show you Our Power and Ability to do what We will)”
Allah, may He be praised, says that the mudghah is “formed” or “unformed.” If the miscarriage occurred between 80 and 120 days, the fetus should be checked. If it has human traits, the blood is nifaas; otherwise, it is istihaadah[iii].
Shaikh Ibn Baz (May Allah have mercy on him) stated:
If a woman miscarries and the baby has human traits, her bleeding is postpartum. She observes postpartum bleeding norms.
Her spouse can’t have sex until she stops bleeding or waits forty days. If the bleeding stops before 40 days, she must pray, fast during Ramadan, and have sex with her him.
Postpartum blood has no minimum duration. If the bleeding stops after about ten days, she must do a Ghusl and follow all the rules for a person who is ritually clean. If she sees blood after forty days, it’s because of illness. She would fast and pray while bleeding, and her spouse could have sexual contact with her. As the Prophet (Peace and Blessings of Allah be upon him) told Fatimah bint Abu Hubaish, she must do ablution before every prayer. (May Allah be pleased with her).
“ Make ablution for the time of every prayer. ”
If the blood she discharges after forty days happens at the same time as her period, it follows the rules of menstruation. She can’t fast or pray until she’s clean. She cannot have sexual relations with her spouse[iv]. [End quote paraphrased]
Click here to know: Nifaas, or postnatal bleeding periods, in the four schools of thought.
Peace and blessings be upon the last and final prophet.
[i] Regulations of worship during menses, 2nd edition, Muhammad Mustafa al Jibaly, Al Kitab As-Sunnah publishing page 6
[ii] Sahih al-Bukhari 6594
[iv] Islamic Rulings on Menstruation and Postpartum Condition Compiled By: Darussalam
Edited By: Abdul Rahman Abdullah Publisher & Copyright: Darussalam Publishers, page 34