In the name of Allah,
As for the Islamic ruling on fasting during pregnancy, the jurists have four different opinions on this issue. First, they feed the poor without Qada. Ibn Umar and Abbas said this. Abu Haneefa, Abu Ubayd, and Abu Thawr believe they only need to perform the Qada and not feed the poor. Third, they perform Qada and feed the poor. Al Shafi believes this. The fourth view is that pregnant women do Qada but don’t feed the poor, while wet nurses do both.
The most correct belief is that a woman who is pregnant or nursing is considered to be sick, so she does not have to fast and just has to make up the days she missed, whether she is worried about herself or her child. Click here for more on this.
The fast of a pregnant lady who is bleeding is lawful because the child is still in the uterus and the blood is not menses or nifaas. Most pregnant women don’t menstruate. Those who think pregnant women can menstruate require that the blood come at the same time as their usual cycle.
Some scholars think that the pregnant woman does not menstruate, even if it happened during her normal cycle. This is the well-known view of scholars. However, according to all scholars, most pregnant women’s bleeding fluctuates and should not be taken seriously. Her prayer and fast are valid[i].
The revered scholar Shaykh Uthaymeen( May Allah have mercy on him) stated,
‘For some (very few) pregnant women, menstruation is the steady flow of blood that hasn’t stopped since the beginning of their pregnancy and comes at the same time each month. According to the majority, this is menstruation and follows the same rules. But if her periods stop after she gets pregnant and she starts to see the blood that is different from normal monthly blood, this does not affect her fasting because it is not menstruation.”[ii][ end quote paraphrased]
According to Imam Ahmad, pregnant women do not menstruate[iii].
Bleeding may occur when something is lifted, dropped, or otherwise handled roughly. This is not menstrual blood, but bleeding from a blood vessel, so an expecting woman can still fast and pray. She’s treated like a clean woman.
Sheikh Salih Al Munajjid stated: If a pregnant lady bleeds, her fast is valid[iv].
What are the things that invalidate fasting? click here to know.
May Allah’s peace and blessings be on the last and final prophet
[iii] Natural blood of women By Shaykh Muhammad bin Salih Al-Utheimeen, Second Edition Translated & Researched by Saleh-As.Saleh S . Dr, Page 50
[iv] See Rulings pertaining to Ramadan, A Collection of Works by Sheikh Muhammad Salih Al-Munajjid, Islamfuture, page 60