In the name of Allah,
The conditions of who must fast during Ramadan are four. That they are:
- Reached puberty
- Resident[not traveling] Muslims who can fast without restrictions like hayd (menstruation) or nifaas (post-natal bleeding)
A wet dream or ejaculation marks pubescence in boys. Wet dreams or menstruation mark pubescence in girls. Pubic hair growth around the privates. If they haven’t had these experiences by 15 lunar years, both sexes are legally pubescent and must fast. The child will be rewarded for fasting, and the parents will be rewarded for raising him well and teaching him to do good. Maturity in the Maliki school is determined by ejaculation or age, which is 18 in the well-known stance.
If a woman gets her period or has lochia, even for a second, her fast is broken and she has to make up those days.
Should A Woman Who Has Become Pure Of Menstruation, Nifaas, Or Recovery From Sickness Fast For The Remainder Of The Day?
Ibn Qudaamah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in al-Mughni: Then, there are two reports about their situation, and one of them says that they shouldn’t eat or drink for the rest of the day. Abu Haneefah agrees. The other opinion is that they don’t have to stop eating and drinking for the remainder of the day. Al-Shaafa’i and Maalik[i] agree.
If her menstruation finishes between Fajr and Maghrib in Ramadan, she takes a ghusl bath, starts her worship, and fasts until Maghrib. She can’t eat or drink till sunset. Otherwise, she’s sinful. However, this day does not count and must be made up after Ramadan. The same rules are in lochia (post-natal bleeding)[ii].
According to Al Hidaya[iii], if a traveler enters the city or a woman becomes pure during the fast, they must fast for the rest of the day. Al-Shafi’I (may Allaah have mercy on him) said abstaining isn’t required.
Sheikh Fawzaan (may Allaah have mercy on him) stated: They must fast for the remainder of the day and make up for it afterward [iv].
Ibn ‘Uthaymeen[v] (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:
Yes, a menstruation woman who becomes pure during the day can eat and drink, as can a traveler who returns home. Maalik, al-Shaafa’i, and Imam Ahmad (may Allaah have mercy on them) agree.
‘Abd-Allaah ibn Mas’ood (may Allaah be pleased with him) said, “Whoever eats at the beginning of the day let him eat towards the end.”
One of the Taabi’een’s imams, Jaabir ibn Yazeed, Abu’l-Sha’tha’, came from a journey to discover his wife clean from her menses, so he had intercourse with her.
Allaah has told travelers and women who have their period to make up the fast. We would be unreasonable to expect him to abstain from eating and drinking. In such a case, we would be asking him to refrain from eating and drinking in addition to making up the lost days, even if only one is essential. This proves that we can eat and drink, but we shouldn’t do it publicly[vi].
If a traveler returns home during Ramadaan and finds that his wife has become pure from menses or nifaas or has recovered from illness and is not fasting, he may have intercourse with her without kaffarah[vii].
The Fasting Person Can Be Sexually Defiled In The Morning (That Is, A Person Is Not Required To Perform Ghusl Before Fajr)
This can be from intercourse, a wet dream in a required or voluntary fast, or a woman’s period ending before fajr. Their fast is legal even if they don’t have a ghusl until after dawn.
The mother of the believers, Aisha (Allah be pleased with her), said, “Fajr would arrive during the month of Ramadan and the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) would be in a condition of significant ritual purity from other than a sexual dream” (i.e. because of sexual relations). That day, he would fast and bathe[viii].
Does A Woman Have To Bleed While Giving Birth In Order To Be In Nifaas?
The blood that flows out of the uterus as a result of giving birth is referred to as nifaas (postpartum bleeding). The Shafis say that it’s not necessary for a woman to bleed after giving birth for the fast to be broken. The fast is broken by birth[ix].
The woman is not in nifaas if the delivery occurs without bleeding, which is rare. Ibn Qudaamah al-Maqdisi[x] said: If she gives birth without seeing blood, she is pure (Tahir) and not in nifaas because nifaas is blood.
Ibn Hajar al-Haytami (may Allaah have mercy on him) also has the same view[xi]. Shaykh Uthaymeen supports this. He said Wudu is sufficient and she doesn’t need Ghusl.
Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy on him) said, ‘”If a woman gives birth and doesn’t see any blood, which is very rare, she shouldn’t stay away from prayer and other things for the period of nifaas.”
If she gives birth when Zuhr begins, and sees no blood, she is exempt from performing ghusl. She should perform wudu’ and pray instead[xii].
The scholars of the Standing Committee for Issuing Fatwas also stated that she should fast and pray like all other clean women if she did not see any blood[xiii]. They also said: If a pregnant woman gives birth without blood, she must pray, fast, and do ghusl, and her husband may have intercourse with her later.[xiv]
Finally, to avoid scholarly disagreement, she should do ghusl[xv].
Peace and blessings be upon the last and final prophet.
[i] The Risala Ibn Abi Zayd Al Qaywarani’s Manual of Islamic Law, Translated by Aisha Bewley page 361
[ii] A Complete Guide to Fasting and Ramadan, SeekersGuidance, Ustada Umm Ihsan, Page 22
[iii] Al-Hidayah THE GUIDANCE, Burhan Al Din Al Farghani Al Marghinani, Book of Fasting, page 334
[iv]A summary of Islamic Jurisprudence by Dr. Salih Al-Fawazan, Vol 1- page 378
[vi] Fataawa al-Siyaam, p. 102.
[vii] al-Majmoo’, 6/174.
[viii] Sahih Muslim 1109d, See also A Complete Guide to Fasting and Ramadan, SeekersGuidance, Ustada Umm Ihsan, Page 13
[ix] The fiqh of fasting Ramadan according to the school of Imam shafi‘I, SeekersGuidance, Page 49
[x] End quote. Al-Mughni, 1/429
[xi] Fataawa al-Fiqhiyyah al-Kubra, 1/358
[xii] al-Sharh al-Mumti‘, 1/281
[xiii] Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah (2/420)
[xiv] Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah, 5/421